The falling-film evaporator has the advantage of gravity pulling the film downward. In some cases the kettle is indirect fired. Figure 7. A portion of the solvent is vaporized to produce a concentrated solution, slurry or thick, viscous liquid. and 5-ft-long tubes. The heating tubes are arranged in a horizontal bundle immersed in the liquid at the bottom Liquid circulation is rather poor in this type of evaporator. Kualitas air. Leakage can be avoided by selecting the proper gasket for the application and following proper assembly procedures (5). Evaporator.vertikal tabung Panjang. <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Shruti; panose-1:2 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-charset:1; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:262144 0 0 0 0 0;} @font-face {font-family:"Cambria Math"; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:roman; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-1610611985 1107304683 0 0 159 0;} @font-face {font-family:Calibri; panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-1610611985 1073750139 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:Shruti;} p.MsoHeader, li.MsoHeader, div.MsoHeader {mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-link:"Header Char"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:center 3.25in right 6.5in; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:Shruti;} span.HeaderChar {mso-style-name:"Header Char"; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Header; mso-ansi-font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;} .MsoChpDefault {mso-style-type:export-only; mso-default-props:yes; font-size:10.0pt; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:Shruti;} @page Section1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> Lesson 2CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF EVAPORATORS. Figure 9. Solids increase the tendency to foul the heating surface, which reduces the heat-transfer coefficient and boil-up rate. The cross-section of the downtake is usually between 75% and 150% of the cross-sectional area of the tubes. Evaporation is different from distillation in that there is no attempt to separate the vapors into individual components. Horizontal Tube Evaporators It consist of a round or square shell and a horizontal tube bundle which is usually square. It can be built as a large single unit, partially due to the high heat-transfer performance exhibited undermost conditions, and partially because of the simplicity and low cost of construction. Different types of evaporators are used in different types of refrigeration applications and accordingly they have different designs. (i) Horizontal tube evaporator A simple unit, not used to a great extent on new installations, is the horizontal tube evaporator. Agitated thin-film evaporation successfully overcomes problems with difficult-to-handle products. Low product inventory and operation at near-equilibrium conditions in the process zone are important for highly reactive products. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Expert. Paddles and/or scrappers are used to improve the economy and quality of the product. When designing a tubular evaporator, one should evaluate the value of mechanical recirculation. It may range from a small amount of unstable foam that breaks easily to a very stable foam that is difficult to break and tends to fill the entire void of the evaporator system. (Fig. Circulation is created by the difference in specific gravity between the bulk liquid and the heated liquid and vapor generated inside the tubes.The highest heat-transfer coefficients are achieved when the level is only about half-way up the tubes. HORIZONTAL TUBE EVAPORATOR Steam is passed through the horizontal tubes, which are immersed in a pool of liquid to be evaporated. to 4 in. The simplest, and one of the oldest, designs is the batch evaporator (Figure 1). The volume held in the plate evaporator is very small compared to the large available heat-transfer surface. The Production Capacity can … The horizontal tube falling film evaporator when compared with the vertical version not only has lower power consumption, reduced equipment height requirements, and smaller heat transfer temperature difference due to the high heat transfer coefficient and low … Volatile components evaporate rapidly. In case of horizontal film evaporation the liquid to be vaporised is distributed evenly on the top of a horizontal tube bundle. Sometimes heating coils immersed in the liquid. To investigate the falling film heat transfer coefficient, evaporator is designed with horizontal tubes arranged in staggered manner. This type of unit is known as the Roberts evaporator in Europe and is the calandria evaporator in the United States. The falling-film evaporator is a variation of the long-tube rising-film design, in which the tubular heat exchanger is on top of the liquid/vapor separator. Horizontal tube evaporators are used in the pharmaceutical industry, pulp and paper industry. The circulation is achieved with the aid of an external circulating pump generally a centrifugal pump. Explanation of horizontal-tube evaporator . Evaporation is an operation used to concentrate a solution of a nonvolatile solute and a volatile solvent, which in many cases is water. Agitated thin-film, or wiped-film, evaporators are well-suited for processing difficult-to-handle materials. Horizontal Tube Shell-Side Evaporator. For this purpose perforated plates and special designed jet nozzles are applied. Eventually this will require shutdown of the process and cleaning of the heat transfer surfaces, which results in production downtime and additional maintenance labor. Good quality horizontal tube evaporator from horizontal tube evaporator manufacturer, Buy horizontal tube evaporator online from China. It consists of a jacketed vessel that is heated with a vapor or liquid heating medium (H). Near the top of the tubes, the bubbles grow rapidly. Consideration must be given to the vapor velocity in the evaporator tubes and heating jackets. Concentrated liquid is collected. Figure 3. CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF EVAPORATORS, Last modified: Friday, 2 November 2012, 4:36 AM, CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF EVAPORATORS. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. The horizontal tube evaporator is the only type of chemical evaporator in which the heating medium is inside the tubes. Units consist of short tubes, 4-6 ft long, and 2-4 in. CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF EVAPORATORS. 2. (5). One principal use of the short-tube vertical evaporator is the concentration of sugar cane juice. The table below provides some guidance in the selection of an evaporator for a particular application. Lesson 4. horizontal tube evaporator working video youtube, Working Principles - Fallfilmverdampfer. Feed flows upward through the tubes and heating medium flows downward on the shell side of along-tube rising-film vertical evaporator. Typically, the most economical choice for low capacity or multi-product batch production is the batch or stirred-batch evaporator. Eng. He was with LCI for 40 years and is a specialist in process design, distillation and heat transfer in the food, pharmaceutical, chemical and polymer industries. Horizontal-tube evaporator | Article about horizontal-tube evaporator by The Free Dictionary. With OEM drawings and records for your products, LCI is your best resource for parts and repair service. Reduction below the optimum level results in incomplete wetting of the tube wall,with a consequent increase in fouling tendency and a rapid reduction in capacity. Horizontal falling film evaporators have a number of potential advantages over their vertical counterparts in the petrochemical industry, such as the ability to use tubes with external enhancements. 2. The horizontal evaporator is least satisfactory for fluids that form scale or deposit salt (which would build up on the outside of the tube). Machine can expansion 6Tubes, 8Tubes or more tubes in one shot. To optimize the heat transfer and maintain low bulk temperatures, plate evaporators are often operated under reduced pressure. Experimental data on horizontal tube evaporator-condenser water desalination units agree well with the turbulent model, which covers the whole range of the evaporating film flow rate [1]. Type of heat exchanger – Tube type, plate type, scraped surface etc. to 6 ft in length; general practice favors about 2-in.-dia. High distillation splits utilizing a single-pass process could reduce the flow of liquid to where it is inadequate to keep the tubes wetted near the bottom. How many square feet of area are needed per 100 lb of dilute water per hour? The simplest evaporator as shown in following figure, consists of an open pan and kettle in which liquid is boiled. Condensate is removed from any convenient place on the bot-tom of the tubesheet (such as C), and the non-condensed gases are usually vented from somewhere near the upper tubesheet(e.g.,D). Type of convection – Natural convection and forced convection, 4. Foaming can often be minimized by special designs for the feed inlet (separation of feed from the vapor stream) and the vapor/liquid separation area(special disengaging designs). Any increase in the viscosity of the concentrate will reduce the overall heat-transfer coefficient. At first glance,the addition of a pump and additional controls will add to the installation, operating and maintenance costs. The advantage is it require small headroom and ability to arrange the bundle. There are many types and variations of evaporators,and the best for a particular application depends on the product characteristics and desired results. Gas flows through the HRSG in … Advantages of the long-tube vertical evaporator are: Some of the common uses of long-tube vertical evaporators are the concentration of cane sugar syrups, black liquor in paper plants, nitrates and electrolytic tinning liquors. Speak with one of our process experts to find your solution today! The horizontal tube evaporator (Figure 2) is the oldest type of chemical evaporator, although other improved types are now more commonly used. Evaporator film aduk Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Evaporasi. Fouling of the heat transfer surfaces is usually caused by solids in the feed, precipitating solids in the concentrate, or degradation of the product. A batch evaporator is one of the simplest designs. The Wärtsilä Serck Como Horizontal inner Tube Evaporator (HiTE) is a multi-stage evaporator specifically designed for small to medium capacities of 30 to 150 tons per day. The principal advantage of horizontal tube evaporators lies in the relatively small headroom they require. This, in some cases, could allow the use of a smaller evaporator. Circulation and heat transfer in this type of evaporator are strongly affected by the liquid level (3).Boiling in the tubes induces circulation past the heating surface. It is easier to clean the tubes in a vertical unit than in a horizontal tube evaporator, here also the product circulation is by natural convection. This can be accomplished by a combination of minimizing the volume of product in the evaporator at anyone time, minimizing the time in the evaporator, and reducing the product’s bulk boiling temperature by operating the evaporator at reduced pressures. When this occurs the vapour carries with it varying quantities and sizes of liquid droplets. It is the only distinct types of chemical evaporator employing steam in the tubes. The heating medium is steam. In addition, staging or vapor recompression for energy recovery are not practical. 2.2), (ii) Vertical tube (short tube calandria) evaporator, Tubes carrying the steam internally are placed vertically in the bottom of the cylindrical evaporator chamber. Continuity of operation – Batch and continuous. In the lower portion of the tubes, the feed is heated to its boiling point. Evaporation differs from drying in that the residue is a flowable liquid instead of a solid. Various thin-film evaporator designs are commercially available. A gasketed plate-and-frame evaporator may be operated in arising-film, falling-film, or rising/falling-film mode. Typical applications of gasketed plate evaporators are stripping applications, removing monomers from polymers and deodorization. dia., set between two horizontal tubesheets that span the evaporator-body diameter. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EVAPORATORS, Lesson 2. horizontal tube evaporator. The tube bundle contains a large circular downcomer that returns concentrated liquor above the top tubesheet to below the bottom tubesheet for product withdrawal. Where high capacity is required, a continuous process is usually used. A properly designed evaporator must, at a minimum: Critical operational and product characteristics of the solution to be evaporated have a major effect on the selection of the evaporator type most suited for the application. It is basically a shell-and-tube heat exchanger mounted to a vapor/liquid separator. However, recirculation of part of the concentrate back to the feed stream may increase the heat transfer enough to allow the evaporator’s size to be reduced considerably,resulting in lower total costs. As the liquid boils, it rises up through the tubes and returns through the central downtake. The falling-film evaporator is particularly useful in applications where the temperature driving force between the heating medium and the liquid is small (less than 15°F). Batch evaporation is not well-suited for temperature-sensitive products. The knowledge of the mode of liquid flow between neighboring consecutive tubes in a horizontal bundle is important to the understanding of transport rate characteristics. Steam is available at 30 psig. Tubes are usually 1–2-in.-o.d. The tube bundle contains a large circular down comer that returns concentrated liquid above the top tube sheet to below the bottom tube sheet … Vapors can flow either co-currently or counter-currently, and are ready for condensing or subsequent processing as they leave the unit. The gaskets confine the fluids and prevent them from escaping into the atmosphere. Boiling starts as the liquid rises through the tubes. The HiTE is designed to function in a wide range of operational areas, i.e. The product is metered into a tank to a specified level through a feed nozzle (F). In an evaporator, evaporation of milk occurs at temperature ranging from 45-75 °C and operated under vacuum. The heat is extracted through an indirect or a direct heat exchanger. The rising/falling-film evaporator’s advantages are: They are best applied when handling clear fluids or foamy liquids, and when large evaporation loads are required. Aliran ke atas (film-panjat) Aliran ke bawah (film-jatuh) Sirkulasi paksa ; 3. 3.2.1 … Fluids are directed through the adjacent layers between the plates, either in series or parallel, depending on the gasketing. Horizontal Tube Evaporator adalah tube-tubenya terletak horizontal, karena kondisinya yang demikian, harga evaporator ini relative murah dengan konstruksi design yang memudahkan penggantian tube-tubenya. Heat is applied and the batch is allowed to heat to its boiling point; vapors are removed until the desired concentration is reached. The following factors should be considered: Choosing the best evaporator may be easy or may be complex. The rising-film and the falling-film evaporators are sometimes combined into a rising/falling-film evaporator to incorporate the advantages of both (Figure 6). It may require more cleaning time, but it is typically a low-maintenance system. (4). The tubes may range from 1 in. Horizontal film evaporator. The horizontal tube evaporator is the only type of chemical evaporator in which the heating medium is inside the tubes. At some distance further up, bubbles form on the tubes and boiling begins, increasing the linear velocity and the rate of heat transfer. This article first explains the process requirements that an evaporator must meet, and discusses the critical operational and product characteristics and their effects on evaporator selection. Reproduced with permission from CEP(Chemical Engineering Progress) December 2004. In processes where high distillate-to-concentrate ratios are required, recycling of some amount of the concentrate may be required. Simply stated, the method quickly separates the volatile from the less volatile components using indirect heat transfer and mechanical agitation of the flowing product film under controlled conditions.The separation is normally made under vacuum conditions to maximize the temperature difference while maintaining the most favorable product temperature, as well as to maximize volatile stripping and recovery. The heating steam is saturated steam that gives its heat of condensation and out as liquid water at the same temperature and pressure input. Agitated thin-film evaporators have a wide processing flexibility, and a single system can often be designed to process different products under varied operating conditions (6). One of the more useful types of evaporators for difficult-to-handle materials is the agitated thin-film evaporator(Figure 8). The plates are gasketed and arranged to form narrow flow passages when a series of plates are clamped together in the frame. In order to get a better understanding of distribution characteristics of the dynamic and heat transfer performance in a horizontal-tube evaporator, a numerical calculation was developed to simulate the internal film condensation and external falling film evaporation in a tube bundle. LCI Corporation, 4433 Chesapeake Drive Charlotte NC 28216 USA - A Nederman Company, © Copyright 2020 LCI Corporation | Advantages of an agitated thin-film evaporator are: A disadvantage is its higher cost compared to standard evaporation equipment. Figure 6. 401–403 (1950), Perry, R. H., C. H. Chilton, and S. D. Kirkpatrick, “Chemical Engineer’s Handbook,” 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill,New York, NY, pp. The heat is then removed. Nonvolatile components are dis-charged at the bottom outlet. The horizontal-tube evaporator is a development of the open pan, in which the pan is closed in, generally in a vertical cylinder. Where the product is difficult to handle due to extreme temperature sensitivity, high viscosity, heavy solids, or a high tendency to foul, a technology such as the plate-and-frame or agitated thin-film evaporator maybe required. In this evaporator as evaporation occurs outside the tubes, This unit provides an open space on the periphery so that the liquid may circulate more freely through the coils, with the liquid moving up through the coils as it is heated and the colder product moving down through the annulus around the basket. Natural Circulation Evaporator. Horizontal tubes from 2 to 3 cm diameter extended across the bottom of a cylindrical chamber from one to three meters in diameter and 2.5 to 4.5 meter high. The evaporator receives refrigerant from the thermostatic expansion valve or orifice tube as low pressure, cold atomized liquid. Progress,75(1), pp.52–58 (Jan. 1979). In such cases, the choice may be dictated by such factors as capacity, small batch production, past plant experience, available space, operator requirements, utility requirements, maintenance required, and/or cost. Box 16348, Charlotte, NC, 28297; Phone: (704) 398-7878; Fax: (704) 392-8507; Email: wglover@lcicorp.com). In a horizontal thin film evaporator, the product is distributed at the heated evaporator wall by the rotor so that a turbulent circular ring forms at the whole evaporator surface. in diameter and from 30 in. Degradation due to long residence time,fouling of the heat trans-fer surfaces, plugging of tubes, and low heat trans-fer and high pressure drops due to high viscosities are common problems. The combination of the ability to function at low temperature differences and short residence times makes the falling-film evaporator suitable for use with temperature-sensitive products. The product contains 30 lb of caustic soda per 100 lb of water. 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