Public Health Reports. [11] Two methods are employed, the hydrochlorination of acetylene and the dehydrochlorination of ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane). May 2000, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) - Chemical Economics Handbook (CEH) - IHS Markit", http://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/eh/chemfs/fs/vc.htm, http://www.npi.gov.au/resource/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm, "Sur la Composition de la Liqueur des Hollandais et sur une nouvelle Substance éthérée", https://doi.org/10.1038/s41929-020-0431-3, http://aseh.net/resources/restored/resources/teaching-units/teaching-unit-better-living-through-chemistry/historical-sources/lesson-1/MCA-Vinal%20Chloride%20Safety%20Sheet-1954.pdf, http://www.pvc.org/en/p/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm, "Vinyl chloride: health effects, incident management and toxicology - GOV.UK", Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Angiosarcoma of the Liver Among Polyvinyl Chloride Workers – Kentucky, Federal Register: September 25, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 186), Information on the aerosol propellant controversy, ATSDR Toxicological Profile for chloroethene / vinyl chloride, CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Chemical Identifiers for Vinyl Chloride from CAMEO Chemicals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vinyl_chloride&oldid=995859387, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Vinyl chloride is one of typical plastics. Smaller amounts of vinyl chloride are used in furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automotive parts. If vinyl chloride starts to leak from the internal sphere or if a fire is detected on the outside of the sphere then the contents of the sphere are automatically dumped into an emergency underground storage container. Midland Michigan. In order to arrive at a product that remains flexible, especially at low temperatures, most PVC is heated and mixed with plasticizers, which are sometimes added in concentrations as high as 50 percent. Vinyl chloride is a mutagen having clastogenic effects which affect lymphocyte chromosomal structure. It is highly toxic, flammable, and carcinogenic. About 13 billion kilograms are produced annually. PVC is Polyvinyl Chloride. A major drawback to the use of ethane are the forcing conditions required for its use, which can be attributed to its lack of molecular functionality. Kramer, G.C., M.D. PVC pipe is what rural high schools with small budgets use to make goal posts for their football fields. Nanostructuring unlocks high performance of platinum single-atom catalysts for stable vinyl chloride production. Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C=CHCl that is also called vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) or chloroethene. Environmentalists and health advocates raised concerns over the possible ill effects of exposure to substances such as residual vinyl chloride monomer, hydrogen chloride, organometallic stabilizers, and phthalate plasticizers. "Clinical Manifestations in Vinyl Chloride Poisoning" Clinic of Professional Diseases. Chloroethene, Chloroethylene, Ethylene monochloride, Monochloroethene, Monochloroethylene, VC, VCM, Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) Colorless gas or liquid (below 7°F) with a pleasant odor at high concentrations. This colorless compound is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce the polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Suciu, I et al. Copenhagen. We have built facilities to produce special vinyl chloride resin in the U.S. and Asia as part of this global-scale business. Commercially it is made by combining feedstock with elemental chlorine. Second only to PE in production and consumption. Inhibited vinyl chloride may be stored at normal atmospheric conditions in suitable pressure vessel. PVC is used in the manufacture of numerous products, including packaging films and water pipes. Vinyl chloride liquid is fed to polymerization reactors where it is converted from a monomeric VCM to a polymeric PVC. Ethane sulfochlorination has been proposed as a route to produce vinyl chloride using sulfur instead of oxygen.[2]. Vinyl chloride is an organohalogen compound that has important industrial applications. Polyvinyl Chloride. [19] The complete loss of skin elasticity expresses itself in Raynaud’s Phenomenon.[21]. Prior to 1974, workers were commonly exposed to 1,000 ppm vinyl chloride, causing "vinyl chloride illness" such as acroosteolysis and Raynaud's Phenomenon. Food (ingestion) is a trivial source of exposure. [7], Vinyl chloride was first produced in 1835 by Justus von Liebig and his student Henri Victor Regnault. Viola's findings in 1970 were a "red flag" to B.F. Goodrich and the industry. Main Industries and Occupations at Risk Production of polyvinyl chloride resins (workers who clean and maintain the reactors are especially at risk); Production of vinyl chloride- vinyl acetate copolymers; Storage of Vinyl Chloride Monomer; Sampling and analysis of Vinyl Chloride Monomer. John Creech from B.F. Goodrich discovered angiosarcoma (a very rare cancer) in the liver of a worker at the B.F. Goodrich plant in Louisville, Kentucky. Even though residence time and temperature are carefully controlled, it produces significant quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbon side products. It is also blow-molded into clear, transparent bottles. It is a toxic and carcinogenic gas that is handled under special protective procedures. The main polymerization methods include suspension, emulsion, and bulk (mass) methods. Dermal exposure effects are thickening of skin, edema, decreased elasticity, local frostbites, blistering, and irritation. It remains the main production method in China. Viola, P L. "Carcinogenic Effect of Vinyl Chloride" Presented at the Tenth International Cancer Congress. In fashion, furniture and all types of indoor and outdoor accessories, PVC open up functional and design opportunities that are both visually striking and fundamentally practical. [23] In 1949, a Russian publication discussed the finding that vinyl chloride caused liver injury among workers. [28] In a 1969 presentation given in Japan, P. L. Viola, a European researcher working for the European vinyl chloride industry, indicated, "every monomer used in V.C. This industrial route to vinyl chloride was common before ethylene became widely distributed. This colorless compound is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce PVC. Weathering degradation of plastics results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that continue on in the environment. It can be formed in the environment when soil organisms break down chlorinated solvents. The reaction must, therefore, be kinetically controlled in order to obtain a maximal vinyl chloride yield. In order to replace mercuric chloride in industrial applications gold[9] and platinum[10] based catalysts have recently been proposed as viable alternatives, ensuring economical viability by extremely low metal loading (nanostructuring to the single atom level). In short, PVC enables us to live better, richer and, p… [6] Vinyl chloride was briefly used as an inhalational anaesthetic, in a similar vein to ethyl chloride, though its toxicity forced this practice to be abandoned. A major thermoplastic material with a very wide variety of applications, the essential materials for polyvinyl chloride are derived from oil and salt. Degradation during service life, or after careless disposal, is a chemical change that drastically reduces the average molecular weight of the polyvinyl chloride polymer. Polyvinyl chloride (/ˌpɒlivaɪnəl ˈklɔːraɪd/; [5] colloquial: polyvinyl, vinyl [6]; abbreviated: PVC) is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene. Some processes use an absorber-stripper system to separate HCl from the chlorinated hydrocarbons, while other processes use a refrigerated continuous distillation system. It is flammable, emitting hydrogen chloride. long-chain carbon-based "organic" molecules) which name refers to the fact that in their semi-liquid state they are malleable, or have the property of plasticity. Plastisols can be made into products by being spread on fabric or cast into molds. When treated with certain catalysts, vinyl chloride monomers undergo polymerization and form the larger compound known as polyvinyl chloride, or PVC. Exposures to vinyl chloride monomer during the early years of production resulted in an important sentinel health event: the recognition of an excess of a rare liver cancer, hepatic angiosarcoma, at facilities throughout the world. Reprinted from Industrial Medicine and Surgery. "Contaminants in soil: Collation of toxicological data and intake values for humans. As the nitrogen purge gas exits the void space it passes through an analyzer that is designed to detect if any vinyl chloride is leaking from the internal sphere. [27] In 1968, Mutchler and Kramer, two Dow researchers, reported their finding that exposures as low as 300 ppm caused liver damage in vinyl chloride workers thus confirming earlier animal data in humans.

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