Discuss the energy, wavelength, and frequency of each member of the electromagnetic spectrum and how these characteristics affect its behavior in interacting with matter. One way in which light interacts with matter is via the photoelectric effect, which will be studied in detail in . Electromagnetic energy differs from mechanical energy in that it does not require a medium in which to travel. Identify concepts regarding the electromagnetic spectrum important for the radiographer. There are only two ways to transfer energy from one place to another place. Chapter 3 This phenomenon is called, Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging. His work is considered by many to be one of the greatest advances of physics. • Identify concepts regarding the electromagnetic spectrum important for the radiographer. This question can be answered both broadly and specifically. They all have the same velocity—the speed of light—and vary only in their energy, wavelength, and frequency. EM radiation can exhibit interference patterns. Rather, the energy itself vibrates. In general, it is the radiographer’s role to be familiar with the different types of radiation to which patients may be exposed and to be able to answer questions and educate patients. Wavelength One difference between the “ends” of the spectrum is that only high-energy radiation (x-rays and gamma rays) has the ability to ionize matter. Feb 27, 2016 | Posted by admin in GENERAL RADIOLOGY | Comments Off on Electromagnetic and Particulate Radiation. In the latter half of the 19th century, the physicist James Maxwell developed his electromagnetic theory, significantly advancing the world of physics. James Clerk Maxwell derived a wave form of the electric and magnetic equations, thus uncovering the wave-like nature of electric and magnetic fields and their symmetry. This question about the nature of electromagnetic radiation was debated by scientists for more than two centuries, starting in the 1600s. X-rays and gamma rays are used for imaging in radiology and nuclear medicine, respectively. While investigating the scattering of X-rays, he observed that such rays lose some of their energy in the scattering process and emerge with slightly decreased frequency. That is, electromagnetic radiations are emitted when changes in atoms occur, such as when electrons undergo orbital transitions or atomic nuclei emit excess energy to regain stability. The wave model of light cannot explain why heated objects emit only certain [frequencies] of light at a given temperature, or why some metals emit [electrons] when light of a specific frequency shines on them. His work is considered by many to be one of the greatest advances of physics. This question can be answered both broadly and specifically. The higher the intensity of light shining on a metal, the more packets, or particles, the metal absorbs and the more electrons are emitted. The physicist Max Planck first described the direct proportionality between energy and frequency; that is, as the frequency increases, so does the energy. One phenomenon that seemed to contradict the theories of classical physics was blackbody radiation, which is electromagnetic radiation given off by a hot object. This phenomenon is called wave-particle duality, which is essentially the idea that there are two equally correct ways to describe electromagnetic radiation. The wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum range from 106 to10-16 meters (m) and the frequencies range from 102 to 1024 hertz (Hz). Radiowaves are used in conjunction with a magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to create images of the body. Chemistry Journal 2.2 Electromagnetic Radiation Driving Question: How does the nature of particles, waves, and energy explain phenomena such as lightning? DE Broglie, in his PhD thesis, proposed that if wave (light) has particle (quantum) nature, on the basis of natural symmetry, a particle must have the wave associated with it. The key difference between wave and particle nature of light is that the wave nature of light states that light can behave as an electromagnetic wave, whereas the particle nature of light states that light consists of particles called photons. • Differentiate between electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Electromagnetic radiation may be defined as “an electric and magnetic disturbance traveling through space at the speed of light.” The electromagnetic spectrum is a way of ordering or grouping the different electromagnetic radiations. EM radiation has a wavelength. radioactivity ionization Refraction, diffraction and the Doppler effect are all behaviors of light that can only be explained by wave mechanics. All of the members of the electromagnetic spectrum have the same velocity (the speed of light or 3 × 108 m/s) and vary only in their energy, wavelength, and frequency. Explain wave-particle duality as it applies to the electromagnetic spectrum. Rather, the energy itself vibrates. Blackbody Radiation. The amplitude refers to the maximum height of a wave. Difference between Electromagnetic and Mechanical Energy. • Discuss the energy, wavelength, and frequency of each member of the electromagnetic spectrum and how these characteristics affect its behavior in interacting with matter. Introduction Light, that is, visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, is usually described as though it is a wave. Log In or Register to continue The energy of a photon E and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation associated with it are related in the following way: \[E=h \upsilon \label{2}\] microwaves X-rays and gamma rays are used for imaging in radiology and nuclear medicine, respectively. electromagnetic spectrum 06.11 Hess’s Law and Enthalpies for Different Types of Reactions. He or she should also understand the nature of radiation well enough to safely use it for medical imaging purposes. Both ends of the electromagnetic spectrum are used in medical imaging. • Calculate the wavelength or frequency of electromagnetic radiation. • Explain the relationship between energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation. The wave-particle duality of photons and electromagnetic radiation is enshrined in an equation first proposed by the German physicist Max Planck (1858 to 1947). ultraviolet light Apply coupon WELCOME21 at checkout and avail 21% discount on your order. Introduction In 1905, Einstein applied Planck's quantum theory of light to account for the extraordinary features of the photoelectric effect. particle nature of electromagnetic radiation and planck's quantum theory The electromagnetic wave theory of radiation believed in the continuous generation of energy. Only photons whose energy exceeds a threshold value will cause emission of photoelectrons. Blue light has a smaller wavelength; red light has a longer wavelength. The wavelength (i.e. Sub Atomic Particles; 2.1.1. The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons when electromagnetic radiation, such as light, hits a material. Only gold members can continue reading. The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation This chapter introduces the nature of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Electromagnetic Radiation For a photon: P = h v c. Therefore, h p = c v = λ. The energy of electromagnetic radiation can be calculated by the following formula: In this formula, E is energy, h is Planck’s constant (equal to 4.15 × 10-15 eV-sec), and f is the frequency of the photon. Wavelength and frequency are discussed shortly. In fact, energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation are related mathematically. The phenomena such as interference, diffraction, and polarization can only be explained when light is treated as a wave whereas the phenomena such as the photoelectric effect, line spectra, and the production and scattering of x rays demonstrate the particle nature of light. Video explain methods & techniques to solve numericals on particle nature of electromagnetic radiations helpful for CBSE 11 Chemistry Ch.2 structure of atom With electromagnetic radiation, it is the energy itself that is vibrating as a combination of electric and magnetic fields; it is pure energy. The radiographer should consider him or herself as a resource for the public and should be able to dispel any myths or misconceptions about medical imaging in general. More specifically, the radiographer should be able to explain to a patient the, In the latter half of the 19th century, the physicist James Maxwell developed his electromagnetic theory, significantly advancing the world of physics. Students may wonder why it is necessary for the radiographer to understand the entire spectrum of radiation. The radiographer should consider him or herself as a resource for the public and should be able to dispel any myths or misconceptions about medical imaging in general. All electromagnetic radiations have the same nature in that they are electric and magnetic disturbances traveling through space. Radiowaves are used in conjunction with a magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to create images of the body. This property is explained in this chapter. Electromagnetic energy differs from mechanical energy in that it does not require a medium in which to travel. Particulate Radiation Conceptually we can talk about electromagnetic radiation based on its wave characteristics of velocity, amplitude, wavelength, and frequency. The ranges of energy, frequency, and wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum are continuous—that is, one constituent blends into the next (Figure 3-2). • Discuss the energy, wavelength, and frequency of each member of the electromagnetic spectrum and how these characteristics affect its behavior in interacting with matter. the number of waves that pass by a fixed point during a given amount of time FQ: In what ways do electrons act as particles and waves? The phenomenon is studied in condensed matter physics, and solid state and quantum chemistry to draw inferences about the properties of atoms, molecules and solids. We talk about light being a form of electromagnetic radiation, which travels in the form of waves and has a range of wavelengths and frequencies. particulate radiation Very soon, it was experimentally confirmed by Davisson and Germer that the electron shows the diffraction pattern and therefore has the wave associated with it. The members of the electromagnetic spectrum from lowest energy to highest are radiowaves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays. Summary More specifically, the radiographer should be able to explain to a patient the nature of ionizing radiation as well as any risks and benefits, and should be an advocate for the patient in such discussions with other professionals. The major significance of the wave-particle duality is that all behavior of light and matter can be explained through the use of a differential equation which represents a wave function, generally in the form of the Schrodinger equation. Explain the relationship between energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation. Differentiate between x-rays and gamma rays and the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum. So does electromagnetic radiation consist of waves or particles? This phenomenon is called wave-particle duality, which is essentially the idea that there are two equally correct ways to describe electromagnetic radiation. Planck’s constant Dismiss, 01.05 Properties of Matter and their Measurement, 1.05 Properties of Matter and their Measurement, 01.06 The International System of Units (SI Units), 01.08 Uncertainty in Measurement: Scientific Notation, 1.08 Uncertainty in Measurement: Scientific Notation, 01.09 Arithmetic Operations using Scientific Notation, 1.09 Arithmetic Operations Using Scientific Notation, 01.12 Arithmetic Operations of Significant Figures, 1.12 Arithmetic Operations of Significant Figures, 01.17 Atomic Mass and Average Atomic Mass, 02.22 Dual Behaviour of Electromagnetic Radiation, 2.22 Dual Behaviour of Electromagnetic Radiation, 02.23 Particle Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation: Numericals, 2.23 Particle Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation - Numericals, 02.24 Evidence for the quantized Electronic Energy Levels: Atomic Spectra, 2.24 Evidence for the Quantized Electronic Energy Levels - Atomic Spectra, 02.28 Importance of Bohr’s Theory of Hydrogen Atom, 2.28 Importance of Bohr’s Theory of Hydrogen Atom, 02.29 Bohr’s Theory and Line Spectrum of Hydrogen – I, 2.29 Bohr’s Theory and Line Spectrum of Hydrogen - I, 02.30 Bohr’s Theory and Line Spectrum of Hydrogen – II, 2.30 Bohr’s Theory and Line Spectrum of Hydrogen - II, 02.33 Dual Behaviour of Matter: Numericals, 2.33 Dual Behaviour of Matter - Numerical, 02.35 Significance of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, 2.35 Significance of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, 02.36 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle: Numericals, 2.36 Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle - Numerical, 02.38 Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom: Introduction, 2.38 Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom - Introduction, 02.39 Hydrogen Atom and the Schrödinger Equation, 2.39 Hydrogen Atom and the Schrödinger Equation, 02.40 Important Features of Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom, 2.40 Important Features of Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom, 03 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties, 03.01 Why do we need to classify elements, 03.02 Genesis of Periodic classification – I, 3.02 Genesis of Periodic Classification - I, 03.03 Genesis of Periodic classification – II, 3.03 Genesis of Periodic Classification - II, 03.04 Modern Periodic Law and Present Form of Periodic Table, 3.04 Modern Periodic Law and Present Form of Periodic Table, 03.05 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100, 3.05 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100, 03.06 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table – I, 3.06 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table - I, 03.07 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table – II, 3.07 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table - II, 03.08 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-block – I, 3.08 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - s-block - I, 03.09 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: p-blocks – II, 3.09 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - p-blocks - II, 03.10 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: Exceptions in periodic table – III, 3.10 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - Exceptions in Periodic Table - III, 03.11 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: d-block – IV, 3.11 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - d-block - IV, 03.12 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: f-block – V, 3.12 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - f-block - V, 03.18 Factors affecting Ionization Enthalpy, 3.18 Factors Affecting Ionization Enthalpy, 03.20 Trends in Ionization Enthalpy – II, 04 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure, 04.01 Kossel-Lewis approach to Chemical Bonding, 4.01 Kössel-Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding, 04.03 The Lewis Structures and Formal Charge, 4.03 The Lewis Structures and Formal Charge, 04.06 Bond Length, Bond Angle and Bond Order, 4.06 Bond Length, Bond Angle and Bond Order, 04.10 The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory, 4.10 The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory, 04.12 Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bonds, 4.12 Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bonds, 04.17 Formation of Molecular Orbitals (LCAO Method), 4.17 Formation of Molecular Orbitals (LCAO Method), 04.18 Types of Molecular Orbitals and Energy Level Diagram, 4.18 Types of Molecular Orbitals and Energy Level Diagram, 04.19 Electronic Configuration and Molecular Behavior, 4.19 Electronic Configuration and Molecular Behaviour, Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure - Test, 05.02 Dipole-Dipole Forces And Hydrogen Bond, 5.02 Dipole-Dipole Forces and Hydrogen Bond, 05.03 Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces and Repulsive Intermolecular Forces, 5.03 Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces and Repulsive Intermolecular Forces, 05.04 Thermal Interaction and Intermolecular Forces, 5.04 Thermal Interaction and Intermolecular Forces, 05.08 The Gas Laws : Gay Lussac’s Law and Avogadro’s Law, 5.08 The Gas Laws - Gay Lussac’s Law and Avogadro’s Law, 05.10 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure – I, 05.12 Deviation of Real Gases from Ideal Gas Behaviour, 5.12 Deviation of Real Gases from Ideal Gas Behaviour, 05.13 Pressure -Volume Correction and Compressibility Factor, 5.13 Pressure - Volume Correction and Compressibility Factor, 06.02 Internal Energy as a State Function – I, 6.02 Internal Energy as a State Function - I, 06.03 Internal Energy as a State Function – II, 6.03 Internal Energy as a State Function - II, 06.06 Extensive and Intensive properties, Heat Capacity and their Relations, 6.06 Extensive and Intensive Properties, Heat Capacity and their Relations, 06.07 Measurement of ΔU and ΔH : Calorimetry, 6.07 Measurement of ΔU and ΔH - Calorimetry, 06.08 Enthalpy change, ΔrH of Reaction – I, 6.08 Enthalpy change, ΔrH of Reaction - I, 06.09 Enthalpy change, ΔrH of Reaction – II, 6.09 Enthalpy Change, ΔrH of Reaction - II, 06.10 Enthalpy change, ΔrH of Reaction – III, 6.10 Enthalpy Change, ΔrH of Reaction - III. Students may wonder why it is necessary for the radiographer to understand the entire spectrum of radiation. unit of frequency ( ν) is hertz (Hz, s −1 ). Both ends of the electromagnetic spectrum are used in medical imaging. Contrarily, wave nature is prominent when seen in the field of propagation of light. 3.6 The Dual Nature of Electromagnetic Energy Learning Objectives Explain how the double slit experiment demonstrates wave-particle duality at the quantum scale. Objectives \n Particle/wave nature of electromagnetic radiation \n \n Visible light and other types of electromagnetic radiation are usually described as waves. So we know that light has properties of waves. Critical Concept 3-2 Tags: Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging In fact, energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation are related mathematically. The American physicist Arthur Holly Compton explained (1922; published 1923) the wavelength increase by considering X-rays as composed of discrete pulses, or quanta, of electromagnetic energy. visible light The wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum range from 106 to10-16 meters (m) and the frequencies range from 102 to 1024 hertz (Hz). alpha particles inverse square law Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that originates from the atom. Critical Concept 3-1 hertz (Hz) Planck theorized that electromagnetic radiation can only exist as “packets” of energy, later called photons. Define waves. In the latter half of the 19th century, the physicist James Maxwell developed his electromagnetic theory, significantly advancing the world of physics. Radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, UV-rays, X-rays, gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations were confirmed by Heinrich Hertz through experiments with radio waves. They all have the same velocity—the speed of light—and vary only in their energy, wavelength, and frequency. Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window) Difference between Electromagnetic and Mechanical Energy Electromagnetic radiations are characterized by the properties − frequency ( v) and wave length (λ). Calculate the wavelength or frequency of electromagnetic radiation. Because the speed of EM waves predicted by the wave equation coincided with the measured speed of light, Maxwell concluded that light itself is an EM wave. Charge to Mass Ratio of Electron; 2.1.3. • Identify concepts regarding the electromagnetic spectrum important for the radiographer. gamma rays Electromagnetic radiation is energy traveling at the speed of light in waves as an electric and magnetic disturbance in space. E=hf v = particle speed. When electromagnetic (EM) radiation is explained using the particle model, which particle-like behavior is being described? Wave Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation: James Maxwell (1870) was the first to give a comprehensive explanation about the interaction between the charged bodies and the behavior of electrical and magnetic fields on the macroscopic level. Key Terms All of the members of the electromagnetic spectrum have the same velocity (the speed of light or 3 × 108 m/s) and vary only in their energy, wavelength, and frequency. As previously stated, the velocity for all electromagnetic radiation is the same: 3 × 108 m/s. Electromagnetic and Particulate Radiation The constant, h, which is named for Planck, is a mathematical value used to calculate photon energies based on frequency. The members of the electromagnetic spectrum from lowest energy to highest are radiowaves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays. 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