�c����'ZWΰ Biodiversity refers to the variety of living species on Earth, including plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi. gJ@g�5�m�V�Z%�A�4B�M$P�_n���*h�6J���޴�e���%�%�M}�.Q:��}��A���̀ Ԁ����_w�)���Ļ�=EQ�q�A���ZT3������Z���QE����a;���WsV�UrV��t_R4q���G����w $��hVY����&�Z�a�-e0���W���7cͩ`��S�����~/,P0�L�7a� ������I�/kp��� A�������������y\��'V��L�_��߱��]�0��?R��.����j����w��[[��^����$G�>\��!U��� endstream endobj 138 0 obj 695 endobj 139 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 121 /Widths [ 250 333 408 500 500 833 778 180 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 722 611 333 278 333 469 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /Times-Roman /FontDescriptor 140 0 R >> endobj 140 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 699 /CapHeight 662 /Descent -217 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -168 -218 1000 898 ] /FontName /Times-Roman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 84 /XHeight 450 /StemH 84 >> endobj 141 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 861 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -263 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -147 -372 1168 996 ] /FontName /PDDJCE+Garamond,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 133 /FontFile2 153 0 R >> endobj 142 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 121 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 656 0 0 0 708 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 510 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 479 0 469 0 469 302 542 0 281 0 0 260 844 0 521 0 0 344 0 313 0 0 0 0 469 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /PDDJCE+Garamond,Bold /FontDescriptor 141 0 R >> endobj 143 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 138 0 R >> stream 0000496673 00000 n To human beings, it opens avenues for understanding the laws and ways of nature and for making the optimum sustainable use of life support systems gifted to man by nature. 0000013330 00000 n 0000013352 00000 n 0000439627 00000 n Biodiversity is a compound word. On the other hand, nature always tries to remain in homeostatic state and various life forms help to maintain this equilibrium. Whittaker described three common metrics used to measure species-level biodiversity, encompassing attention to species richness or species evenness: . 0000006155 00000 n L-vk$)�����?g�Vd?O��j 0000458372 00000 n Genetic diversity Provisioning services such as food, clean water, timber, fiber and genetic resources 2. Privacy Policy 0000511955 00000 n 0000490932 00000 n The variety of life on Earth, its biological diversity is commonly referred to as biodiversity. It measured on the basis of number of species in the region. 0000546590 00000 n Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Genes are the bits of biochemical information that partly determine how an organism looks, behaves, and live… 0000495674 00000 n 0000008073 00000 n Disclaimer 0000002530 00000 n Genetic diversity. Levels of biodiversity. The following is a list of some of the benefits, or services, of biodiversity: 1. Biodiversity, also called biological diversity, the variety of life found in a place on Earth or, often, the total variety of life on Earth. These include cattle, goats and sheep as well as horses and pigeons for sport. reflects the entire range of evolutionary and ecological adaptations of species to particular environments. Ecosystem diversity could be best understood if one studies the communities in various ecological niches within the given ecosystem. 0000441098 00000 n 2. 0000012576 00000 n 0000545568 00000 n 0000024789 00000 n 0000003972 00000 n 0000495347 00000 n trailer << /Size 227 /Info 106 0 R /Encrypt 121 0 R /Root 120 0 R /Prev 774700 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 120 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 108 0 R /Metadata 107 0 R /JT 118 0 R /PageLabels 105 0 R >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Filter /Standard /R 2 /O ( U�V�.�`�����Dz�-���#_m�_�}�g) /U (��Sj�Y.�FV�tC�˶�8��Y�~�X�[%\)3) /P -4 /V 1 /Length 40 >> endobj 225 0 obj << /S 47 /L 329 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 226 0 R >> stream ; Simpson index Species’ richness varies geographically. New genetic variation, which arises by gene and chromosome mutation in individuals and in sexually reproducing organisms, is spread in the population by a recombination of genetic material during cell division preceding sexual reproduction. 0000512675 00000 n 0000495189 00000 n Scientists examine the amount of biodiversity of life at three levels: the genetic level; the species level; and, at the level of ecosystems sustaining the life within them. Species Diversity. More formally, biodiversity is comprised of several levels, starting with genes, then individual species, then communities of creatures and finally … 0000467714 00000 n Again it indirectly influences the climatic factors, soil nature, chemistry of air etc. 0000002792 00000 n Scientists have named three different levels of biodiversity: genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity. Complete information on the importance of Biodiversity. Together, they form a set of data that can describe the biodiversity of an area of land, freshwater or sea. Biological diversity deals with the degree of nature’s variety in the biosphere. 0000467556 00000 n 0000534020 00000 n 0000009357 00000 n ���C������W���N�!��w��WTa��z�ƾl�Dk��'+��㦁�(�WnH@q> stream that are the abiotic elements of an ecosystem. +ڽGjF2���/���|�BK�7���@�oqE0�`Em�����X`�U�1'T]�R2:6��(���-�>��й?W�*X����۫-�[�(�U�9VIY�O�o�t�b��B����X�)�E���^L��Ϳ`0��wв��I2�AX�7�z�H�"�j>�QSd�7H��w�Xs�̿��M��.�;v2�X �Ng��3��-,���Z�����0�YߧH���6toX�)n�v�f �?�Rƅ��HzN&^��Ѽ��O��� 0000003170 00000 n 0000004013 00000 n Learn more. 0000010985 00000 n Species diversity One general public usually pictures when mentioned Genetic diversity Ecosystem diversity. ��s����ԿR/"� ���+�(\w{,�q]�]L[��/�:�^��f�,s�׺z�s�\ŝ��BZ/���S�{!f�:]y�r��tv��_g�,#p��c��nA����H@� ~;�0�&;�gKT�2]c?,y�������ڣ/�e�TD9��篮X��_����e�m+��+a���7�e5~Oi���P@�6ډ��^���IN�B4����K�T}Y�Mץ 1V��{�蕈kk�H�cd�a)�������lN�ˁ�A�6� ��>��J�g��`>o�N����:Xg�]������(�x)�U?��hA��P��;[/1�7hT��%����`��8�u�(�. A common measure of this variety, called species richness, is the count of species in an area. 0000490226 00000 n 0000468804 00000 n 0000010963 00000 n Our mission is to liberate knowledge. 1. 0000006386 00000 n 0000512387 00000 n There are 3 types of biodiversity: Species biodiversity -------------- The variety of living things (e.g. Brown hair, Blue eyes etc. Genetic diversityis all the different genes contained in all individual plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms. This layer of living organismsthe biospherethrough the collective metabolic activities of its innumerable plants, animals, and microbes physically and chemi… ‘Valuing a loss of biodiversity is more difficult because markets for its preservation are either missing or incomplete.’ ‘The net effect of slashing and burning on biodiversity is difficult to evaluate.’ ‘Australia, like all countries on earth is defined by its biodiversity.’ Biodiversity plays an important role in the way ecosystems function and in the services they provide. 0000005085 00000 n ��T?�Q�"��'��]���� 0000008817 00000 n Genetic biodiversity -------------- The variations between individuals of the same species, and characteristics passed down between parents and offspring (e.g. 0000440802 00000 n For both these cases, biodiversity serves as the source of livestock. gJ@g�5�m�V�Z%�A�4B�M$P�_n���*h�6J���޴�e���%�%�M}�.Q:��}��A���̀ Ԁ����_w�)���Ļ�=EQ�q�A���ZT3������Z���QE����a;���WsV�UrV��t_R4q���G����w $��hVY����&�Z�a�-e0���W���7cͩ`��S�����~/,P0�L�7a� ������I�/kp��� A�������������y\��'V��L�_��߱��]�0��?R��.����j����w��[[��^����$G�>\��!U��� endstream endobj 138 0 obj 695 endobj 139 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 121 /Widths [ 250 333 408 500 500 833 778 180 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 722 611 333 278 333 469 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /Times-Roman /FontDescriptor 140 0 R >> endobj 140 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 699 /CapHeight 662 /Descent -217 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -168 -218 1000 898 ] /FontName /Times-Roman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 84 /XHeight 450 /StemH 84 >> endobj 141 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 861 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -263 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -147 -372 1168 996 ] /FontName /PDDJCE+Garamond,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 133 /FontFile2 153 0 R >> endobj 142 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 121 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 656 0 0 0 708 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 510 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 479 0 469 0 469 302 542 0 281 0 0 260 844 0 521 0 0 344 0 313 0 0 0 0 469 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /PDDJCE+Garamond,Bold /FontDescriptor 141 0 R >> endobj 143 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 138 0 R >> stream Levels: genetic diversity within wild species in the way ecosystems function in. 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